What is Diabetes Mellitus?
Glucose, which is an important food source for all organs in the body, is ready for absorption with the hormone insulin secreted by the pancreatic gland. When a sufficient amount of insulin cannot be produced or the insulin produced can not be used effectively by the body, the rate of sugar in the blood rises. This is called hyperglycemia and, if not controlled, can lead to tissue and organ damage. Long-lasting high blood sugar can cause permanent damage to the entire body, especially the cardiovascular system the kidneys and eyes. For this reason, individuals diagnosed with diabetes should definitely receive diabetes education and comply fully with the appropriate nutrition program.
What are the types of diabetes?
- a) Type 1 Diabetes: It is the type encountered when insulin is never produced in the pancreas or when it is produced very little. It is usually seen in childhood and youth. Symptoms; nausea, vomiting, fatigue, abdominal pain, deep breathing, smell of acetone in your breath, absent-mindedness, weight loss, frequent urination (especially at night), dry mouth, drinking too much water, dry skin. Balanced nutrition, exercise and insulin therapy are important.
- b) Type 2 Diabetes: It is the type that constitutes the majority of diabetes cases and is generally seen in middle age and after. In Type 2 Diabetes, the body produces insulin, but cells are resistant to insulin. Therefore, the amount of insulin produced over time remains insufficient. After meals, the sugar in the blood cannot turn into energy and the blood sugar level rises. The main symptoms are; excessive urination, drinking too much water, weight loss despite eating, weakness, visual disturbances, late healing of skin wounds, dry skin, itching, frequent infection development (especially urinary tract infection), numbness in the hands and feet, tingling, vaginal discharge in women and itching. Deep breathing, the breathing of acetone, dry tongue, drowsiness are symptoms of coma. It is very important that these patients receive diabetes education. Even relatives of the patients should receive diabetes education. Thus, they are informed about what kind of exercises they should do, how they should be fed and what they should pay attention to, and they organize their lives accordingly.
- c) Diabetes in Pregnancy (Gestational Diabetes): It is the case when the insulin hormone secreted by the pancreas is insufficient as the pregnancy progresses. It usually improves when the pregnancy ends.
- d) Hidden Diabetes (Pre-Diabetes): It is the situation where the person’s blood sugar level is above normal, but not high enough to make a definite judgment that it is “diabetes”. The person in this situation can prevent possible diabetes by paying attention to his diet and healthy living.