Thyroid Gland Diseases

All organs in our body are important. Each of them has different tasks and malfunctions may cause disturbances in other body functions.

The thyroid gland consists of two lobes (right thyroid – left thyroid) and located in the neck area. The hormone secreted by the thyroid gland, one of the endocrine organs, is called thyroid hormone. There are 2 types of thyroid hormones called T3 and T4. These hormones are responsible for the regular conduct of metabolic activities. Lack of thyroid hormones and their excess lead to serious problems.

Thyroid Gland Diseases

What is goiter?

The growth of the thyroid gland is called goiter. There may be no nodules in goiter, this is called “nodule free goiter”. In the goiter consisting of nodules, it is called as “one-nodule goiter” or “multi-nodular goiter” depending on the number of nodules.

When the body is unable to produce enough thyroid hormones, the brain stimulates thyroid gland cells. Cells multiply and grow to produce more hormones. Thus, goiter is formed. Nodules are formed as more cells proliferate. Nodules are very common, often harmless. They are recommended to be followed. Since its growth or hardening is a sign of cancer, it should be kept under control.

What is hyperthyroidism?

Hyperthyroidism is called when the thyroid gland is overworked and produces more hormones than the body needs.


  • Shaking hands
  • Heart palpitations
  • Hot flashes, excessive sweating
  • Irritability
  • Excessive excitement
  • Sentimentality
  • Weight loss, excessive sweating
  • Hair loss
  • Diarrhea
  • Strength reduction
  • Menstrual irregularities

What is hypothyroidism?

The condition of the thyroid gland not producing enough hormones is called hypothyroidism.


  • Weakness, fatigue
  • Concentration difficulties
  • Constipation
  • Inability to tolerate cold and getting cold quickly
  • Dry skin

What is Hashimoto’s disease?

The immune system directs the body-damaging antibodies to the thyroid gland. The task of the thyroid gland is to get rid of these bacteria, viruses. However, he may be defeated while trying to destroy them and become unable to secrete enough hormones. The name of the disease that occurs in this case is “Hashimoto’s disease”. The underlying cause of many diseases, especially hypothyroidism, cannot be diagnosed early in general.


  • Getting fat
  • Dry skin
  • Chills
  • Tiredness
  • Cramps
  • Change in sound
  • Constipation

What is thyroid cancer?

Thyroid cancer occurs when nodules formed in the thyroid glands in the neck area are malignant. It is not a very common type of cancer. There are no major symptoms. It may be noticed by chance in the routine controls of patients who are being followed up due to other endocrine diseases. It can be treated with surgery to remove the thyroid gland completely.

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