These are small glands in the size of lentils, usually 4, located on the sides of the thyroid gland, which are responsible for secreting parathormone hormone to maintain calcium balance in the body.
What does parathyroid hormone do?
- Provides calcium from the bones to the blood.
- It provides absorption of food from intestines.
- It provides calcium retention from kidneys.
What is hyperparathyroidism?
It is a disease caused by one or more of the glands secreting parathormone uncontrollably. This hormone, which is tasked with mixing calcium from the bone into the blood, increases the calcium level in the blood by causing calcium dissolution in the bones when it is secreted excessively. Pain in the bones whose calcium amount decreases begins and with time, osteoporosis, intra-bone cavities may occur.
- Joint pain, muscle cramps and muscle weakness
- Abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting
- Fatigue, boredom
- Drinking too much water, excessive urination
- Blurring of consciousness, memory problems
- Bone pain, osteoporosis, bone fracture, muscle pain
- Kidney disorders
- Stomach and intestinal disorders
- Anorexia, nausea
Hormone, blood and urinalysis results are sufficient for the diagnosis of the disease. If it is considered to be a condition requiring surgery, a detailed examination is performed by performing neck ultrasonography or parathyroid scintigraphy.
The only treatment is to remove one or more of the glands by surgery.
What is hypoparathyroidism?
It is a disease that occurs when the parathyroid gland cannot produce enough parathormone. It means a decrease in the level of calcium in the blood. Damage to the parathyroid hormone can occur due to its inability to fully function.
Since the level of calcium in the blood decreases, contraction and numbness can be felt in the lips, hands, arms and feet. There may also be problems such as seizures like transfer, breathing and narrowing sensations, dry skin, nail breakage and hair loss.
Calcium, phosphorus and parathyroid values in the blood are checked by performing a blood test. If calcium and parathyroid values are low and phosphorus value is high, hypoparathyroid diagnosis is made.
Surgical intervention is not performed. Needle-drug therapy is applied only.