Internal glands located on the kidneys are called “adrenal glands”. The inner layer is called the medulla, the outer layer is called the cortex. Sex hormones (estrogen and testosterone), cortisol and aldosterone hormones (provide fluid balance, control sodium-potassium absorption) in the outer layer; In the inner layer, epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline) hormones are secreted. Since these hormones are effective on heart rate, they begin to be secreted when there is physical or emotional stress. Irregularities in these secretions, which are very important for the body, can cause a number of important diseases.
Diseases related to the adrenal glands differ depending on the hormone from which the problem is caused. Ultrasound cannot be beneficial for diagnosis because the adrenal glands are close to the back of the abdomen. Computed tomography or magnetic resonance techniques are used to make clear imaging and evaluation.
What happens if the adrenal glands produce too much hormone?
* Aldosterone excess (Hyperaldosteronism); It can lead to hypertension, loss of muscle strength, heart-kidney-brain vascular diseases.
* Cortisol excess (Cushing Syndrome); It can cause problems such as hypertension, hyperglycemia, obesity, osteoporosis, menstrual irregularity, and increase in body hair.
* Androgen excess (Hyperandrogenism); it can expose you to problems such as acne, menstrual irregularity, and body hair growth.
* Adrenaline excess (Pheochromocytoma); It may cause adverse conditions such as headache, dizziness, irregular blood pressure, palpitations and excessive sweating.
What happens if the adrenal glands can’t produce enough hormones?
As the adrenal glands do not produce enough secretions, the levels of cortisol and aldosterone hormones drop in the blood. As a result of this situation, “addison disease” may occur.
- Excessive fatigue
- Anorexia and weight loss
- Hunger hypoglycaemia
- Darkening of the mucous membranes of the mouth and skin, nipples and color of the genital areas
- Low blood pressure and fainting
- Increased need for salt
- Low blood sugar (hypoglycaemia)
- Nausea, diarrhea or vomiting
- Abdominal pain
- Muscular and joint pain
- Depression or other behavioral disorders
- Decreased sweating
- Reduced body hair growth
Tests may be ordered to evaluate electrolyte balance, blood sugar levels, and kidney function in the body. Tests such as low blood sugar (hypoglycaemia) test, low-dose ACTH stimulation test, long-term ACTH stimulation test or glucagon stimulation test may also be ordered. Radiological scans, such as computed tomography or MR magnetic resonance, can also be helpful in the diagnosis to examine the size and shape of the adrenal glands and the pituitary gland.
Hormone therapy, which is applied according to the deficient hormone, is usually suff
What is an adrenal mass (adenoma)?
The tumor originating from the adrenal gland is called “adenoma”. Thanks to computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging techniques, it is checked if it is benign. The malignant tumor is removed by surgery.