The gallbladder is a small, pear-shaped organ located just below the abdomen, on the right side of the abdomen. About 1 liter of bile is secreted daily to be sent from the liver to the small intestine. The secreted bile ensures the absorption of fats and some vitamins. Bile secreted in the liver and flowing into the small intestine accumulates in the gallbladder and becomes more concentrated here. After meals, it is sent to the duodenum to help digestion. The increase or decrease in the amount of substances in the composition of bile, which is normally fluid, adversely affects the fluidity and bile begins to leave a residue. These deposits turn into gallstones over time and gallstones develop. Advanced age, overweight and having given birth increases the stone formation in the gallbladder. It is more common in women.
Stones that usually do not show signs when they block the outlet of the gallbladder and prevent the usual flow of the outbreak. In this process called obstructive jaundice, abdominal pain, jaundice, red or brown urine, nausea, vomiting and fever can be seen.
The gallstones, which fall into the bile duct and cause congestion, can cause cholangitis or acute pancreatitis by causing infection.
Diagnosis is made with blood, urine, stool tests and ultrasonography (US). Rarely, other imaging methods such as computed tomography and MRI are used for diagnosis.
Short-Term drug treatment often improves, but sometimes episodes that require urgent surgery may occur, especially in patients with diabetes and similar problems. The most common method is laparoscopic surgery.
Gallbladder cancer has no specific symptoms. The symptoms seen may indicate different diseases. It is a cancer type that progresses silently in general without any symptoms.
- Abdominal pain
- Digestive problems
- Nausea, vomiting
- intolerance to food
- Dark urine, white stool
Early diagnosis is of great importance for the course of treatment in all diseases, especially cancers. Depending on the patient’s complaints and existing symptoms, imaging methods such as ultrasound, tomography and MR are used. For a definitive diagnosis of gallbladder cancer, advanced imaging techniques are performed by biopsy.
Early diagnosis is critical in treatment because surgery cannot be an advanced stage. In the initial stages, it is possible to remove the tumor by surgery and successful results are obtained. Some of the liver may also need to be removed. Some endoscopic procedures, pain treatment, radiological intervention can be applied to patients in advanced stages to relieve jaundice and pain. Hot chemotherapy and some smart drugs developed recently may also affect the progression of the tumor