Cancer surgery removes the tumour and nearby tissue during an operation. Once the cancer is diagnosed, the patient may require medical treatment and specialized care for months, and often years. The principal modes of therapy – surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
The surgeon often makes large incisions in the body during surgery. But in some cases, a surgeon can use one or smaller cuts. These surgeries typically speed up recovery times and have less pain after surgery.
Below are some examples of minimally invasive procedures and surgeries:
The doctor makes small cuts in the skin using a thin, lighted tube with a camera. The term laparoscopy refers to a minimally invasive surgery of the abdomen. Mediastinoscopy and thoracoscopy is the same type of surgery but it is done in the chest. Laparoscopic surgery may also be done with the help of a robot. During this type of surgery, the surgeon directs robotic instruments to do the surgery. This surgical procedure may be used for the kidneys, prostate, uterus, or ovaries.
Mohs Micrographic Surgery
Also called microscopically controlled surgery. A dermatologist uses this type of surgery to shave off skin cancer. He or she does this a layer at a time until all cells in a layer look like normal cells when viewed under a microscope.
The doctor inserts a thin, flexible tube with a light and camera on the tip into the body. This device is called an endoscope. It may be inserted into the mouth, rectum, or vagina to examine the internal organs. During this procedure, the doctor might remove samples of suspicious tissue to examine further. Learn more about cancer types:
The doctor uses a narrow beam of high-intensity light to remove cancerous tissue.
The doctor uses liquid nitrogen to freeze and kill abnormal cells.
Learn more about cancer types…
Oncological Surgery is the area where surgery is used for the diagnosis, stage detection and treatment of cancer. In oncological surgery applications, the general health of the patient is examined, if any, the condition and treatment of other diseases are checked, the size of the tumor, its location, and whether it metastasizes. According to all these evaluations, surgery is performed using open, laparoscopic or robotic surgery techniques.
Oncological surgeons perform surgeries to remove cancerous tissues and organs, if possible. Surgical operations can also be performed to reduce tumor sizes. They can also perform palliative surgeries to control pain or side effects caused by cancer.
The treatment method that aims to kill cancer cells using chemical components is called Chemotherapy. The drug, which consists of chemical components, differs according to the type of cancer. Sometimes several separate drugs can be used together.
Although it is considered an effective method in cancer treatment, the side effects of chemotherapy are quite severe for the human body. Hair loss, mouth sores, easy bruising, fever and similar diseases are some of these side effects. Also, side effects such as nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, loss of appetite are observed. As chemotherapy continues, lung tissue damage, heart problems, infertility, kidney problems or other cancer risks may occur.
The aim of immunotherapy is to increase the body’s defenses against cancer with biological support instead of using chemical drugs. Medicines developed in a laboratory environment are used to strengthen the immune system. Drugs support the immune system, try to prevent the growth of cancer cells, and prevent the spread of cancer cells, preventing the progression of the disease. Immunotherapy sometimes acts on beneficial cells rather than cancer cells. In such cases, the side effects of treatment occur. The most obvious side effects are; pain, fever, redness, itching, swelling, shortness of breath, heart palpitations, risk of infection, organ inflammation, low or high blood pressure.
Pain Therapy (Algology)
Algology treatments are also used to support the treatment of cancer patients. Algology treatment types are drug therapy, physical therapy, acupuncture. In chronic pain, all treatment types can be used together. Drug therapy is used in the treatment of inflammatory pain and muscle pain. In severe pains, muscle relaxants, anti-anxiety medications, drugs such as diazepam and antidepressant can be used. Pain in cancer can be quite severe. Depending on the patient’s ability to withstand pain, even morphine is used.