The air spaces in the bones around the nose are called “sinuses”. There are five pairs of sinuses in man:
- Cheeks sinuses (maxillary sinuses),
- Forehead sinuses (frontal sinuses),
- Sinuses between the eyes (anterior and posterior ethmoid sinuses)
- Sinuses in the nasal region (sphenoid sinuses)
Sinuses are part of the nasal system. The nose and sinuses secrete approximately half a liter of mucus a day. They sweep and wash away dust particles, bacteria and other airborne particles, moving on the mucus nasal cover (mucosa) produced. Then this mucus drains into the throat and is swallowed. The particles and bacteria in it are broken down by stomach acid. Since this is a normal body function, it is generally not noticed by the person.
Inflammation of the mucosa lining the sinuses located around the nose is called “sinusitis”. In general, sinusitis occurs when the mucus (snot) produced by the covering mucosa cannot be discharged into the nose.
There are three main factors that cause this:
- Obstruction of the nasal discharge ducts (ostium) of the sinuses,
- Disruption of the system (mucociliary activity) that actively carries the mucous to the ostium in the sinuses,
- Change of mucus content or texture.
In the presence of one or more of these factors, the growth of bacteria in the mucus accumulated in the sinuses causes sinusitis. There can be many reasons for the occurrence of sinusitis. For example; chronic sinusitis may develop due to allergies. Adenoid flesh, the curvature of the nose, cystic fibrosis, insufficient immune system, and strong squirting are among the causes of chronic sinusitis. In addition, sinusitis can develop in swimmers who are constantly submerged. Polyp and tumors in the nose, foreign body, anatomical abnormalities in the nose and dental infections are other factors that cause sinusitis.
Types of sinusitis:
- Acute sinusitis
- Chronic sinusitis
- Subacute sinusitis
- Recurrent acute sinusitis
- Acute exacerbation of chronic sinusitis
Symptoms of sinusitis vary from person to person. Generally, people think that sinusitis occurs when the head or face hurts, whereas sinusitis makes little difference with pain. Complaints that are more prominent in sinusitis are known as nasal congestion, deterioration in sound, feeling of fullness and runny nose.
The most common symptoms are:
- Stubborn cough that occurs at night or in the morning,
- Yellow-green colored thick viscous discharge,
- Pressure sensation around the eyes,
- bad breath, nausea and / or vomiting,
- common cold (flu) lasting more than 10-14 days, occasionally mild fever,
- Nasal congestion and snoring,
- Sometimes burning in the throat with nasal discharge,
- Behavior changes,
- Headache that does not go away for a long time