Paediatric Nephrology

Paediatric Nephrology

At the Emirates Specialty Hospital, our paediatric nephrology department is thoroughly experienced at treating problems of the kidney in children.

With particular attention given to looking after youngsters and making them feel comfortable in a medical environment, our paediatric doctors are second to none in the United Arab Emirates. Our doctors make assessments on the healthy development of children so that parents can rest assured their loved ones are equipped to handle whatever the future brings.

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A paediatric nephrology doctor is the one to see at if your child is suffering from a urinary tract disease, kidney disease or kidney stones, or any related high blood pressure. Working with youngsters from birth up until their teenage years, the paediatric nephrology department is qualified to diagnose and treat problems such as urinary tract infections, blood and protein in the urine and other matters relating to the liver organ.

Our doctors take care to assess nutrition, growth and the neurological development of the child patient. The same goes for adolescents with other medical problems, including behavioural and educational problems, bronchial asthma, allergies and diabetes mellitus.

The paediatric nephrology department can administer vaccinations along with kidney and urinary system care, as well as treat urinary tract infections and address children’s bedwetting (nocturnal enuresis) issues.

Kidney stones, acute kidney injury, cystic kidney disease, chronic kidney disease, solitary kidney, and congenital anomalies of the kidneys, are some of the problems that concern our patients. Paediatric nephrology also includes metabolic bone disorders, electrolyte disorders, acid-base disorders and proteinuria.

Reasons for kidney problems in children can include birth defects, hereditary disease, infections, trauma and urine blockages or reflux.

After kidney transplants, patients are in good care with our team who will guide young people every step of the way to make sure they, and their families, are fully aware of how to adapt their lifestyle post-treatment.

The Emirates Specialty Hospital can perform a dialysis treatment (peritoneal & haemodialysis), which rids the blood of excess water, toxins and solutes when the kidney cannot fulfil its function. Experts can also do the pre-natal diagnosis of congenital renal and urinary tract malformation, as well as antenatal assessments of kidney morphology and function.

Children may have to undergo a dipstick test for the urine, blood tests, biopsies, as well as X-rays and other methods to discover issues of the kidney.

Paediatric nephrology care involves administering dialysis, which helps perform some of the kidney’s functions where fluids have built up in the body. Treatment also includes medication to unblock blood vessels, plus diuretics to encourage the urine output.

Pediatric nephrology deals with the diagnosis and treatment of kidney and urinary tract diseases of children aged 0-18. The kidneys provide water, acid-base balance and electrolyte balance in the body, filter out the blood, let out harmful toxins as urine and give information on how much blood will be made into the bone marrow. The urinary system consists of the ureter, bladder and urethra known as the urinary tracts to which the kidneys are attached. In the urinary system, congenital or acquired diseases are diagnosed and treated by pediatric nephrology physicians. Specialist physicians take preventive measures to prevent recurrence of the disease and try to prevent irreversible damages such as kidney failure. Patients are treated on an outpatient basis in the pediatric nephrology outpatient or inpatient in the pediatric nephrology clinic, depending on the condition of the disease.

Pediatric nephrologists are interested in diagnosis and treatment of kidney and urinary tract diseases (infections, bleeding, cysts, tumors, kidney failure), hypertension and rheumatic diseases, kidney and urinary tract stones, FMF (familial Mediterranean fever).

For the diagnosis of all these nephrological diseases, blood and urine tests are performed in biochemistry and microbiology laboratories. When necessary, examinations involving advanced imaging methods such as ultrasound (doppler), voiding cystouretrography, intravenous pyelography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance (MR) are performed by radiology. In addition, kidney scintigraphic examinations called DMSA, DTPA, MAG-3 are also applied by the nuclear medicine branch. Some of the common diseases among these disease groups are given below:

Urinary Incontinence: Urinary incontinence in children is mostly caused by the functional disorder of the bladder. It can rarely be of neurogenic and anatomical origin.

Urinary Tract Infection: Urinary tract infection, which is seen in infants as well as children, is usually manifested by symptoms such as frequent urination, burning while urinating, fever, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. Continuous recurrent infections may pose a risk for the kidneys, as well as conditions such as underlying congestion, the presence of stones, urine leakage.

Kidney Stone and Sand Pouring: Symptoms of stone problems in children can be seen as; yellowing of the skin, abdominal pain, loss of appetite, blood in the urine, sometimes nausea and vomiting. The diagnosis is clarified by laboratory analysis and radiological imaging.

Hypertension: Unlike adults, blood pressure in children varies according to age, height and gender. Hypertension in children is when the differences are above the value that should be taken into account. In obese children, hypertension occurs about 3 times more.

Hematuria: The presence of blood in the urine of children is called hematuria. Urinary tract infection, structural disorders and urinary trauma are the main reasons.

Nephrotic Syndrome: It is caused by the excretion of the proteins necessary for the body with urine during the filtering process that the kidneys perform as a requirement. It is manifested by symptoms such as swelling in the legs and eyelids, weight gain due to water retention, hypertension.

Proteinuria: The condition observed in urine analysis with excess protein excretion is called proteinuria.

Vesicoureteral Reflux: It is the situation in which the urinary tract goes back to the kidney due to the structural defect present at the point opening to the bladder.

Ureteropelvic Stenosis: Stenosis in the urinary tract complicates the excretion of urine from the kidney, increasing the risk of frequent urinary tract infections. It is characterized by intense abdominal pain, darkening in the urine and blood. It manifests itself in children of older age groups with complaints of nausea, vomiting and pain in the kidney area. Ureteropelvic stenosis may be detected during routine controls in infants.

Kidney Problems in Pregnancy: The urine produced by the baby in the womb creates the fluid (amniotic fluid) that the baby swims in the womb. This fluid plays an important role in the development of these areas by filling the baby’s lungs and digestive system. If the baby’s kidneys do not work, the amniotic fluid does not fill the lungs and will die shortly after the baby is born. In some cases, diseases such as urinary tract stenosis, vesicoureteral reflux and kidney cyst can be seen in the womb. These diseases can cause kidney damage and failure and should be treated without impaired kidney function.

Hereditary Kidney Diseases: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is the most common hereditary kidney disease. Diseases such as nephronophysis, diabetic nephropathy and Alport syndrome can be seen in children of sick families. In some cases, such as consanguineous marriage, children also have hereditary kidney diseases, even though the mother and father are not sick.

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